Thammasat Review Thammasat Review Research Administration Division, Thammasat University en-US Thammasat Review 0859-5747 <p style="text-align: justify;">The opinions and ideas expressed in all submissions published in Thammasat Review are solely that of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect that of the editors or the editorial board.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The copyright of all articles including all written content and illustrations belong to Thammasat Review. Any individuals or organisation wishing to&nbsp;publish, reproduce and distribute a particular manuscript must seek permission from the journal first.</p> Political Polarization in Social Media: A Meta-Analysis <p>The problem of political polarization in social media is increasingly dynamic. Therefore, the contribution of this research is more to develop the concept of political polarization in social media, by exploring the research that has been done related to this topic. This study uses the scoping review method. The findings in this study that the development of research on political polarization in social media has become very rapid in the last twelve years in line with technological developments. This is because the virtual world becomes a facility for political polarization to occur. Interestingly, Twitter and ideology are very strong keywords related to this topic. This indicates that Twitter is the most dominant place for political polarization with the cause being ideological differences. Furthermore, keywords that have the opportunity to be investigated further in the future are political discourse, elections, democracy, and political participation in the big theme of political polarization.</p> Dimas Subekti Dyah Mutiarin Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 26 2 1 23 Thailand’ s Sustainable Literacy Competence in Peripheral School: The Bannongkae School Model <p>This research illustrates a successful case of developing Thai and English literacy of primary students who study in a peripheral school in a rural area of Thailand, i.e., Bannongkae school under Naowarat Thawon’s learning approach over 19 years as a teacher and then a director. This article aims to elucidate how the Bannongkae school succeeded in developing students to be competent in Thai and English. Methodologically, this article will employ Jürgen Habermas’s sociological concept of lifeworld combined with perspectives of Andre Gunder Frank’s dependency theory and Jack Mezirow’s transformative learning as its theoretical frameworks to reconstruct the process of learning the Thai and English language as a transformative practice in creating a more effective, more productive, and more just education in Thai society. Meanwhile, Bannongkae school is a research area in this study with a procedure of qualitative approach, in collecting qualitative data with key informants by using in-depth interviews with a director and her staff and using observation of the school context. The findings have three themes: Bannongkae school model as “decolonizing” traditional practices of teaching literacy; its breakthrough beyond poverty, educational inequality, and dependency; and transformative practices based on the educational perspectives. The implication of this research is the successful model of Bannongkae school in improving sustainable literacy competence for peripheral students might be a new classical pathway that the educational policymakers should reconsider to redeem essentialism for the educational practice and policy.</p> Chanadda Poohongthong Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 26 2 24 43 Roles of Emotional Intelligence in Promoting the Innovative Work Behavior of Restaurant Employees <p>This research investigated the role of emotional intelligence in promoting innovative work behavior in restaurant employees in Bangkok. Given the unknown population of restaurant employees in Bangkok, survey data were collected from 414 restaurant employees, representing a response ratio of 82.80%. According to PLS-SEM, emotional intelligence directly affects innovative work behavior (β = 0.38; p &lt; 0.01). Emotional intelligence can influence innovative work behavior indirectly through job satisfaction (t = 2.35, p = 0.018) and knowledge sharing (t = 7.00, p = 0.000). Emotional intelligence also moderates the impact of knowledge sharing on innovative work behavior (β = 0.10; p = 0.02). These results provided a new understanding of emotional intelligence’s role in promoting innovation at the individual level and its mechanism via job satisfaction and knowledge sharing, particularly in the restaurant business, which is still scarce. In addition, they provided guidelines for restaurant owners and managers to promote innovativeness in their employees and innovation in their businesses for sustainable success.</p> Akaraphun Ratasuk Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 26 2 44 73 The Impact of Unemployment on the Health of Individuals: A Bibliometric Survey <p>Unemployment pays a tremendous tribute to human health, both physical and mental. Academics have put their potential emphasis on this particular gradient through their research publications. This literature review aims to explore the performance evolution, trends, and most productive countries in relation to unemployment's effect on health. To achieve these objectives, a total of 3,977 social science and economics journal articles were obtained from the Scopus database through a keyword search. The authors simultaneously reviewed abstracts to identify fifty articles for a content analysis. The findings demonstrated a gradual growth in scientific publication throughout the study period, especially from 1970-2023, while in the last decade, the growth was significant. The results unveiled four distinct themes associated with unemployment/health research constituent: unemployment and health outcomes (both physical and mental health), unemployment and human psychology, unemployment and gender differences, and unemployment effects based on socioeconomic and economic settings. Another significant finding is that the USA holds the dominant position in the scientific production of this particular research domain. The findings can be a source for future studies as well as beneficial to policymakers to gauge some remarkable variables and findings to aid during policy-level decisions. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research</p> Anwar Hossain Choudhury Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 26 2 74 101 The Approaches of Developing Based on the Concept of Competency Based Curriculum for Social Entrepreneurship of Vocational Education Programs in Thailand <p>The purposes of this research were to: 1) study learners’ desired social entrepreneurship competencies and 2) study the needs of desired competency development of social entrepreneurship and developing competency-based curriculum for social entrepreneurship. The population and sample sized are 110 social entrepreneurs,13 experts in social entrepreneurship, 547 education administrators, 1,569 teachers and 76 experts in vocational education management, 2,315 persons in total. Questionnaires were used to collect the data. Data analysis employed mean, standard deviation, priority needs index (PNI) and exploratory factor analysis. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data.</p> <p>The findings revealed that social entrepreneurs’ desirable competencies of students consist of 17 core competencies and 35 functional competencies. The factors in establishing a social entrepreneurship initiative could be classified into 2 aspects: i) cooperation and resource management and ii) vocational education provision. Guidelines for developing a competency-based curriculum for social entrepreneurship revealed that formal education, non-formal education, and dual education management have successfully developed short-course modules, the creation of new learning programs, to the enhancement of entrepreneurship competencies within business and management courses. Additionally, job training within social enterprises and business incubation centers at vocational education colleges, as well as the accumulation of credits in a credit bank system.</p> Anuchai Ramwarungkura Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 26 2 102 140 Sectoral Integration in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Investments: The Case of Myanmar and Philippines’ Financial Disaster Risk Response <p>For decades, emergency plans of top-down, state-centered policies have been employed for disaster risk mitigation measures. These efforts undermine the importance of grassroots involvement in disaster governance, community-based initiatives, and resilience in terms of resource allocations and financial considerations. Hence, this paper tries to assess disaster risk reduction (DRR) investments in terms of structural and non-structural levels as mentioned in three dividends of DRR investment conceptualization. Further, it incorporates sectoral involvement in participatory budgeting, especially as framed by Integrated Community Based Risk Reduction (ICBRR), in building disaster resiliency at the substrate level. The study employed secondary data analysis, especially the latest inputs, through national and international sources, as a base year of calibration. By looking at the context of the Philippines and Myanmar–both being prone to extreme weather events and having climate-sensitive economic activities–the study rules out that while there are available DRR investments in both countries utilized for disaster mitigation, response, and rehabilitation, particularly in the frequent typhoon and flooding, it still has compelling gaps and consideration to augment response potentials. A bottom-up approach is necessary to empower local governments in both contexts and ensure the long-term impact of DRR financial considerations amidst unanticipated calamities.</p> Clyde Andaya Maningo Ei Ei Phyu Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 26 2 141 173 Empowering Returns: Social Entrepreneurship and Public Value Creation in the Reintegration of Indonesian Migrant Workers from South Korea <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The exponential intensification of international migration has led to amplified return flows back to countries of origin, presenting challenges for sustainable reintegration. From this perspective, social entrepreneurship initiatives supporting returnee empowerment offer promising yet understudied solutions to the challenges of sustainable reintegration. When designed holistically, such initiatives have the potential to generate multidimensional public value across political, economic, and educational domains, facilitating impactful and inclusive reintegration processes. We explore Indonesia’s Kampung Korea Program, which leverages social entrepreneurship to empower returning migrant workers through tailored training and collaborative support services. Our qualitative exploration, involving perspectives of migrant returnees and embassy officials, elicits in-depth insights into the role of the program in enabling capacity building, network expansion, and access to opportunities, emphasizing the public value creation that capacitates individuals to drive positive change. We enrich the academic discourse on integrating social entrepreneurship and public value creation in reintegration contexts, enabling meaningful initiatives that empower returning migrants within complex global migration dynamics and promote inclusive, equitable societies.</p> Erna Setijaningrum Anisa Qurota Mawa Adna Alif Hizrafi Kandar Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 26 2 174 199 The Social Impact Value Chain and Driving Factors of the Social Innovation Project to Promote the Social Solidarity Economy: A Study in the Pilot Area of Central Thailand <p>In this study the social impact value chain (SIVC) is utilized as a framework to portray and evaluate processes in social projects from their inception to completion. Focus centers on the overall process of 9 social innovation projects in a pilot area located in central Thailand. The objective is to answer research questions concerning how the components of the SIVC of these social innovation project’s function, and what factors drive them towards promoting a social solidarity economy. Data were collected from documents and in-depth interviews with key informants, including 9 project leaders and 27 beneficiaries, yielding 36 participants. The results of the SIVC analysis revealed 5 dimensions that significantly influenced the outcomes of the social innovation projects and their transformative effects at the initial stages: 1) health and safety; 2) income generation; 3) capacity building and community empowerment; 4) local cultural preservation; and 5) pollution reduction and environmental friendliness. These dimensions reflect the social impact in terms of social, economic, environmental, and cultural aspects. Additionally, the research findings indicate that there are important driving factors for social innovation projects to create a social solidarity economy, including psychological ownership, which includes: 1) ethical consciousness; 2) participation in investment and expenses; and 3) participation in developing of human-centered innovations. Businesses and organizations interested in social innovation should prioritize and implement these factors to create sustainable social impacts.</p> Kanokwara Phuangprayong Sanit Noonin Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 26 2 200 223 Trends in Work-Behaviors: Addressing Work-Related Stress in the Thai Workforce <p>The evolving work landscape has drawn attention, and the World Economic Forum highlights trends impacting the workforce. This study explores five work behavior patterns: quiet quitting, bailan, quiet firing, frugality, and boomerang employees. Quiet quitting involves disengagement, resembling a silent resignation. Bailan reflects deteriorating work and life due to diminished motivation. Quiet firing employs strategies inducing dissatisfaction for cost-saving resignations. Frugality prioritizes work-life balance over excessive wealth. Boomerang employees return to former organizations.</p> <p>To assess prevalence and factors in Thailand, we conducted a survey with 400 employees aged 18-35. Regression analysis revealed stressors influencing negative work patterns. Quiet quitting resulted from mismatched job assignments, unclear evaluation criteria, limited autonomy, and conflicting ideologies. Bailan was influenced by misaligned tasks, monotonous work, isolation, criticism, and unsuitable environments. Quiet firing correlated with excessive workloads, mismatched tasks, isolation, criticism, neglect, unfair treatment, and conflicting ideologies. Frugality factors included unclear job scope, restricted autonomy, isolation, incongruent ideologies, and insufficient resources. Boomerang employees were affected by misaligned tasks and an unsupportive atmosphere.</p> <p>The study found moderate to low levels of negative work behaviors among Thai employees. Organizations can mitigate these by addressing stress factors, refining job assignments, establishing clear criteria, fostering autonomy, promoting open communication, and nurturing supportive environments. These measures not only curb negative behaviors but also align with SDG 8, fostering decent work and sustainable economic growth.</p> Kiriya Kulkolkarn Supawadee Chimpalee Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2023-12-21 2023-12-21 26 2 224 244 Wide Y World: Understanding Cultures and Perspectives of Young Thai Boys’ Love Fans in the Glocalized Context <p>Boys' Love (BL) media, emerging from Japan, has spread across different countries, including Thailand. Globalization has catalyzed the widespread accessibility of BL, fostering an environment wherein fans can create culturally hybridized BL cultures. Drawing on the glocalization and queer hybridization frameworks, this research analyzes the narratives of 13 young Thai BL fans. The objectives of this study were: firstly, to understand how fans engage in recreating BL cultures blending elements from both foreign and local origins, and secondly, to understand their viewpoints concerning gender and sexuality. Unlike the Thai BL of the previous two decades, which predominantly drew on Japanese influences, contemporary Thai BL blends its Japanese foundation with the Thai context and additional foreign components, particularly Korean pop culture. Culturally hybridized BL has notably heightened the visibility of male-male romance within mainstream Thai media, offering an alternative representation of sexual minorities beyond the third sex (เพศที่สาม—phet thi sam) stereotype. However, certain aspects of BL, such as the perpetuation of fixed gender roles within male-male relationships, reinforce conventional gender norms in Thai society. BL, an example of ongoing interplays of gender and sexuality concepts across varying locations and periods, expresses a complex product of these multifaceted interactions.</p> Narut Supawantanakul Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 26 2 245 272 Farmers' Resistance to Agricultural Land Transformation in Vietnam <p>The article's main objective is to examine why farmers resist and if the current land law of Vietnam can ensure the agricultural land rights of farmers. The article's main argument is that there is an unequal power relation for a fair negotiation on land acquisition in the current land law and policies. This study applied a qualitative approach using documentary research, case studies, and interviews as main research tools whilst the theories of "moral economy" and "power of exclusion" will be applied to explain the main argument of this article<strong>. </strong>The research findings revealed that in the current land law, the government still has the absolute power to decide when, where, and how much agricultural land can be acquired. At the same time, there is no effective and equal negotiation system for farmers to negotiate on land decision-making issues. Moreover, the national policy on industrialization and modernization outweighs small farmer’s priorities and opens up the right to access farm land, allowing the private sector (with a helping hand of the local authority) to occupy land and evict local farmers with below market-price compensation. Consequently, there is a rising awareness of unfairness and injustice among farmers. The study suggested that various political agencies and leaders should comprehensively discuss and revise the law to harmonize the interests of different stakeholders and increase political space for all people<strong>.</strong></p> Thanh Thanh Phan Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 26 2 273 296 The Role of Green Advertising on Green Brand Love, Green Perceived Value, and Green Purchase Intention in the Hotel Industry <p>The tourism sector in Thailand plays a vital role in the nation's economic framework. It benefits the stakeholders in the tourism supply chain by creating jobs and generating income. Hotel is one of the significant members of the tourism supply chain. Encouraging the selection of ecologically sustainable accommodations among tourists is a potential component that has the ability to mitigate environmental damage. This study aims to develop a causal model of green advertising, green brand love, green perceived value, and green purchase intention in the hotel business. A quantitative method was employed and utilized online questionnaires for collecting data through purposive sampling from 360 samples of experienced hotel service clients. A structural equation model was used to test hypotheses.</p> <p>The results demonstrated that the causal relationship can be explained as follows: Green advertising is a factor that has positive influences on green brand love and green perceived value. And green brand love and green perceived value also have positive influences on green purchase intention in the hotel business. Furthermore, green brand love and green perceived value can act as mediators between green advertising and green purchase intention. As a result, hotel owners should prioritize developing green brand love and green perceived value among their customers. By designing business operations and advertising that demonstrate that they care about the environment, because it might be a factor that creates the intention to utilize the service, which will result in future business and environmental strength.</p> Chanchai Meathawiroon Sudarat Kliangsa-Art Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 26 2 297 321 Dispute Settlement Mechanism for Economic Conflicts in ASEAN <p>The institutional configuration of ASEAN has been perceived for its uniqueness in which the member states have not been willing to sacrifice their sovereignty to the regional organization. One of ASEAN’s key elements that help illustrate the organization’s lack of resolve in realizing its regionalist institution in accordance with the supranational form is the Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM). Over the past two decades, the DSM has evolved from a traditional, diplomacy-based to a rule-based system. However, the practice and implementation within ASEAN have demonstrated a certain degree of reluctance.</p> <p>This article primarily focuses on the uniqueness nature of the Dispute Settlement Mechanism within ASEAN. By exploring its evolution and its viability to settle dispute among ASEAN members with a particular emphasis on the initial phase of DSM development leading up to the 2004 Enhanced Dispute Settlement Mechanism (EDSM). Four key challenges are identified through this exploration: ASEAN's exclusive jurisdiction and the issue of forum shopping, the impracticality of the EDSM, funding constraints, and the influence of the ASEAN Way. This analysis aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of ASEAN’s distinct institutional configuration through the cases of economic conflicts.</p> Sunida Aroonpipat Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 26 2 322 345 Discovering the Untapped Objectives of Cultural Diplomacy <p>Many countries have utilized cultural diplomacy throughout history to approach foreign audiences, attract them, and achieve the implementing government's goals. However, cultural diplomacy is still often overlooked and underestimated despite its long-standing use. As a result, the scientific development of cultural diplomacy has been impacted, making it less advanced than other sciences of similar age. Despite these challenges, there are still opportunities to contribute to cultural diplomacy today. Our research aims to take advantage of these opportunities by analyzing testimonials from 52 Indonesian Arts and Culture Scholarship alumni we found in a book published by the Indonesian Foreign Affairs Department to identify the objectives of cultural diplomacy. We conducted a study on the alumni testimonials of student mobility programs and identified 292 citations, which we coded and grouped into ten themes. Based on these themes, we developed ten cultural diplomacy objectives. We compared our findings with the objectives suggested by experts and discovered that six of our objectives align with theirs. However, the remaining four objectives are unique and have the potential to make significant contributions to the country if utilized effectively. It is fascinating to see how pure arts and cultural activities can evoke strong emotions, demonstrating the potential of soft power. Well-implemented cultural diplomacy can help achieve the implementing government's objectives and contribute to the country's growth and development.</p> Sofia Trisni Teuku Rezasyah Junita Rachman Chandra Purnama Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 26 2 346 368 Antecedents of Brand Loyalty of the Airline Business in Thailand <p>This research aimed to analyze the structure and relationship and to study the path of effects between customer behavior, customer relationship management, airline service quality, digital marketing, and brand loyalty. The study population comprised individuals aged 20 years and above who utilized airline services. The sample was selected using a simple random sampling method. A questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample consisted of 400 participants. Then analysis the measurement model and structural equation modeling before hypotheses testing by Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) with SmartPLS 4.0 software. The results found that the causal relationship structure was consistent with the empirical data. Customer behavior, customer relationship management, and airline service quality had a positive influence on digital marketing, and digital marketing had a positive influence on brand loyalty, but airline service quality did not have an influence on brand loyalty. The study results revealed that digital marketing was a mechanism driving customer behavior, customer relationship management, and airline service quality, leading to how to build brand loyalty in the airline business in Thailand.</p> Bharis Hongsakul Mallika Subongkod Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2024-01-29 2024-01-29 26 2 369 394 The Mediating Role of Perceived Value, Brand Awareness, and Brand Loyalty in Tourism Revisit Intention among High-Quality Tourists in Thailand <p>This study aims to examine the mediating roles of perceived value, brand awareness, and brand loyalty in the correlation between brand attributes and tourism revisit intention among high-quality domestic tourists in Bangkok, Thailand. In this study, the Hayes Process Macro methodology is used to test for the mediating effects with a sample comprising 163 high-quality tourists. The research seeks to offer insights into the factors influencing tourists' decisions to revisit Bangkok. The study's results reveal that perceived value, brand awareness, and brand loyalty collectively act as mediators in the relationship between brand attributes and tourism revisit intention. This underscores the significance of these three factors in influencing the decision-making process of domestic tourists contemplating a revisit to Bangkok. This research contributes original insights into the interplay of brand attributes, perceived value, brand awareness, and brand loyalty in shaping tourism revisit intention, particularly among high-quality domestic tourists. The findings offer a nuanced understanding that can be leveraged by tourism marketers to formulate more effective strategies aimed at attracting and retaining this specific tourist segment.</p> Watit Intuluck Chakrit Srisakun Surakiat Tadawattanawit Copyright (c) 2023 Thammasat Review 2024-02-15 2024-02-15 26 2 395 422