Thammasat Review Thammasat Review Research Administration Division, Thammasat University en-US Thammasat Review 0859-5747 <p style="text-align: justify;">The opinions and ideas expressed in all submissions published in Thammasat Review are solely that of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect that of the editors or the editorial board.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The copyright of all articles including all written content and illustrations belong to Thammasat Review. Any individuals or organisation wishing to&nbsp;publish, reproduce and distribute a particular manuscript must seek permission from the journal first.</p> Deity Symbols of City Pillar Shrines in Northeastern Thailand: A Multiple Identity Presentation and Negotiation Between Central and Local Cultures <p>The purposes of this study were: to explore the diversity of the deity symbols found in city pillar shrines in northeastern Thailand and to analyze social factors and contexts affecting the presentation of identity through these symbols in the context of central and local cultures. This study was conducted using a folkloristic research approach with an emphasis on field data collection. The embedded community observation method and a theoretical approach to the study of human-community relations, allows researchers to observe ideas, beliefs, and multidimensional community-based approaches. Most importantly, this approach is the study of the cultural expression of human beings who coexist in society, with an emphasis on field data collection. In three population groups, the researcher used the in-depth interview request method: 1) government agencies involved in the construction of the provincial city pillar shines, 2) public academics or local scholars, and 3) tourists. The research results revealed that deity symbols in the city pillar shrines in northeastern Thailand reflected how the central government was accepted as the highest governing body. However, under that acceptance there were also negotiating currents as shown through the combination of local beliefs, which were carefully placed with well-planned priorities to integrate harmoniously into the same area. Nonetheless, the study results also indicated that building of the city pillar shrines might not have been rooted from the local culture but a practice influenced by the central government. This led to the locals having to adapt their original belief to coincide with the downpour of external culture as reflected through today’s deity symbols in the city pillar shrines.</p> Prasirt Runra Copyright (c) 2022 Thammasat Review 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 25 1 1 30 The Kachin Ethno-Nationalism over Their Historical Sovereign Land Territories in Burma/Myanmar <p>Burma/Myanmar is a native home for various ethnic groups. Some of the larger ethnic groups–such as Burmese, Shan, Kachin, Karen, Mon, Rakhine, Karenni and Chin–strongly identifying with ethnic-based territories as “states”, while “regions” are typically dominated by the majority Burmese ethnic group. However, there are many other ethnic groups including minorities such as Rohingya, Palaung, Wa, Kokang, Lahu, Pa’O, Danu, Akha who have their individual territories within states and regions in Burma/Myanmar. In fact, Burmese ethno-nationalism has been deeply ingrained in the aspects of language, culture and religion since Burmese nationalists acting as national policy makers of the government have molded and continue to mold Burma/Myanmar into a Burmese nation state. Consequently, most of the larger ethnic groups have adopted similar mainstream ethno-nationalism based on their ethnicities in order to demand their political right. Accordingly, Kachin ethno-nationalism has politically engendered the Kachin self-determination struggle over their historical sovereign land territories. This study thus focuses on Kachin ethno-nationalism and their self-determination, which is in part the political imbroglio of Burma/Myanmar. In this study, grounded theory was applied as the research methodology. Grounded theory involves developing theories or concepts based on the perspectives of the research findings in terms of a bottom-up approach, rather than hypotheses. Hence, the research process was a simultaneous process of data collection and analysis, which included field informants, key informants and in-depth interviews. As a result, the research findings reveal that the Kachin ethno-nationalism has evolved from the notion of Kachin ethnicity so as to demand the right to rule themselves over their historical sovereign land territories entitled as the Kachin state and the Kachin sub-state. As a central moot point, the study argues that the Kachin ethno-nationalism and its ethnicity have been a tandem catalyst that the Kachins take up to struggle for political autonomy and ethnic equality in Burma/Myanmar.</p> Yaw Htung Copyright (c) 2022 Thammasat Review 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 25 1 31 56 Community Engagement in the Indigenous Education Discourse: Unravelling Policy Lessons from Lumad’s Alternative School in Mindanao, Philippines <p>Indigenous people (IP) education has confronted inequality, cultural discrimination, and misrepresentation of indigenous knowledge that has furthered the systemic oppression of these marginalized sectors. However, the case of <em>Lumad</em> alternative schools in Mindanao, Philippines, offers a unique approach by utilizing community engagement in IP education that embodies collective and participatory principles in fostering community voices in addressing critical problems. Utilizing a case study, we have considered key informant interviews using an unstructured guide question with four purposively selected informants from the alternative schools. Also, the study used secondary data from academic journals, news articles, government publications, and non-government reports and briefs. Narrative analysis for interviews and thematic analysis for secondary sources were instrumental in data analysis. We have argued that the community engagement element of the <em>Lumad</em> alternative schools is essential to community-led IP education that is responsive towards innovatively addressing problems and in the preservation of IP culture. It is presented that the cultural discrimination, inequalities, and oppression that undermines a genuine IP education can be traced back to the Philippines’ colonial and imperial past that significantly contributes to the enduring challenges that these alternative schools still face. Further, the study delineates policy gaps that state and non-state actors attached to IP education and <em>Lumad</em> alternative schools may consider.</p> Jae Mari D. Magdadaro Noe John Joseph E. Sacramento Copyright (c) 2022 Thammasat Review 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 25 1 57 81 A Thematic Analysis of the Journey of Online Learners in the Time of Covid-19 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the world and affected all sectors, most especially that of education. Due to the restrictions this has brought about, educational institutions with the residential mode of study were forced to shift to online and distance modes of teaching and learning. On the other hand, for educational institutions which specialize in Open and Distance eLearning (ODeL) such as the University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU), this was not new for the students. However, even if these students were already familiar with online learning, they were still experiencing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in their respective communities, affecting the teaching-learning process. This study aimed to determine the coping mechanisms of students in response to the pandemic and the factors instrumental for them to adjust. Descriptive statistics were applied and themes of the narratives were identified, based on students’ strategies for coping with stress and the different activities used to help improve their wellbeing. Furthermore, factors affecting their drive to adjust and live with the crisis were identified. As a result, three major parameters for coping with stress and four favored activities done to destress by the students, a majority of who practiced these for more than a year, were identified. Moving forward, most students found strength in their families to adopt to the new normal situation. Despite their familiarity with online learning, UPOU students were still affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Merites M. Buot Krista Marie L. Fama Copyright (c) 2022 Thammasat Review 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 25 1 82 94 A Framework for Designing Customer Experience of Luxury Chain Beach Hotels in Andaman Coast of Thailand: Repercussions of the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has substantially altered the tourism and hospitality industry. The lodging business is among those most affected by the pandemic, especially luxury chain hotels, seen as one of the fastest growing type of hotels and until recently, popular among global tourists. To revive businesses, services should be designed to produce memorable customer experiences. This represents a strategic challenge for hotel marketers working on luxury chain beach hotels. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for designing customer experience in luxury chain beach hotels affected by COVID-19 on Thailand’s Andaman coast. The researchers unified Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) Theory and attributes of luxury chain hotels through a systematic literature review. Five antecedents are identified: service design, customer trust, customer experience, customer delight, and perceived hygiene attributes of COVID-19. The theoretical contribution of this paper could assist academics with effective acceptance model, while the managerial contribution could help hotel marketers to recuperate business when the effects of the pandemic lessen. Suggestions are also provided for future research.</p> Phisunt Tinakhat Kaedsiri Jaroenwisan Wongladda Weerapaiboon Copyright (c) 2022 Thammasat Review 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 25 1 95 123 Enhancing the Customer Journey during COVID-19 through Service Design: A Case Study of Pawnshops in Bangkok <p>This paper has two research objectives: 1) to examine the customer journeys of pawnshop customers during COVID-19; and 2) to examine how service design can enhance the pawnshop customer journey. Using Bangkok as a case study, this paper discusses the roles of pawnshop businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic. The key challenges in terms of the negative perceived image of pawnshops, the disruptive impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and digital disruption are analyzed. By utilizing a qualitative research method, the research design was broken into two parts. The first part focuses on the journeys of pawnshop customers during COVID-19 whilst the second part is the interviews with pawnshop executives focusing on how service design can enhance the pawnshop customer journey. By utilizing the theoretical underpinnings of service design, this paper proposes a framework to explore how a human-centered, transformative, and service system approach can help to address pawnshop service challenges with a recommended research agenda.</p> Kom Campiranon Copyright (c) 2022 Thammasat Review 2022-06-17 2022-06-17 25 1 124 144 Dance Exchange as a Vehicle of Cultural Diplomacy: A Case Study of Ramayana Joint Performances of Thailand’s Khon and Indonesia’s Sendratari <p>The implementation of culture as a tool of diplomatic soft power gave birth to the term cultural diplomacy. Culture is recognized as a source of soft power projection, and Thailand and Indonesia’s governments have been promoting culture in enhancing their nations’ image to the world. This study is based on the significance of soft power through the Ramayana epic as a well-known literature of Asia. It is a root of diverse forms of cultural expressions in Thailand and Indonesia which manifest as both a shared heritage and a distinctive identity. This study therefore centers on dance exchange as a vital feature of cultural diplomacy, focusing on Ramayana Joint Performances of Thailand’s Khon and Indonesia’s Sendratari. Khon and Sendratari are prominent artforms of Thai and Indonesian dance drama where the Ramayana epic is the core story of both dances. This research is aimed to provide a better understanding of how the Ramayana Joint Performance of Khon and Sendratari contribute to cultural diplomacy processes and outcomes, and deliver a clearer insight on the role they play in facilitating intercultural dialogue for cross-cultural understanding. This study finds that the Ramayana Joint Performances act as a form of dance exchange, signifying a common space for an interactive intercultural dialogue in transmitting cultural values and upholding interaction between artists, Thai/Indonesian officials and audience members through artistic expressions. It results in fostering long lasting friendships and mutual understandings between Thailand and Indonesia.</p> Anak Agung Lindawati Kencana Copyright (c) 2022 Thammasat Review 2022-06-17 2022-06-17 25 1 145 177 Control of Tobacco Planting Areas in Thailand Using Remote Sensing Technology <p>This paper reports the results of a remote sensing project conducted in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess tobacco planting areas to support the Thai government’s efforts related to tobacco cultivation control and management. The study areas included 13 provinces and represented 94% of tobacco planting areas in Thailand. The remote sensing application was based on the combined pixel-based and object-based classifications approach and was conducted using Thaichote satellite imagery. A field survey was also conducted in 3 test areas to validate the overall accuracy of the combined classification method. The findings indicated that tobacco cultivation and distribution were identified accurately using remote sensing based on a combined pixel-based and object-based classifications method at the highest accuracy level of 95% with significant agreement based on the kappa coefficient of .832 at 99% confidence level. The tobacco planting areas identified in this study were 35% larger than the registered areas recorded by the Excise Department. Farmers revealed that generally they cultivated 20%-30% more tobacco than they reported in order to secure the next year’s quota in case the tobacco yield was less than expected. The difference reduced the tax revenue that the Excise Department should receive. The tobacco products produced from illegal cultivation were not inspected for quality control. This is likely harmful to consumers. The remote sensing application can provide the necessary precise information of the tobacco planting areas. This would support the Thai government to improve tobacco production control and management and increase their revenue.</p> Ramiha Pacharavanich Copyright (c) 2022 Thammasat Review 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 25 1 178 201 Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT): 4Ps in the Lens of Philippine Decentralization <p>In keeping with its goal to combat poverty, the conditional cash transfer (CCT) program, known locally as the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) provides conditional cash grants to the poorest of the poor. While there had been several initiatives aimed at evaluating the effectiveness and impact of the CCT program, not one has zeroed in on which political set-up the CCT is best compatible with. This study examined how the decentralized political set-up of the Philippines affects the 4Ps in the achievement of its goal as a development initiative. The study utilized a qualitative descriptive survey, the multiple stakeholder perspective approach, and Stakeholder Theory. The Number of Pantawid Pamilya Households by Region, Province, Municipality, Set of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) Data as of April 20, 2014 was utilized for the determination of the research locale and the research respondents. As revealed, the different phases of the 4Ps as a poverty alleviation program, namely: detailed local knowledge, design and implementation of transfer, and the targeting of poverty-reducing public investment reflect the dynamic roles of both the national government and the LGU in the process.</p> Ana Leah D. Cuizon Cyril Bryan D. Cuizon Copyright (c) 2022 Thammasat Review 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 25 1 202 223 The Role of Thai Prosecutors in Child Protection: A Case Study of Child Prostitution Victims <p>This research aimed to study Thai public prosecutors’ expressed roles in protecting the rights of child prostitution victims and protecting them from sex worker. This quantitative study used a randomly selected sample of 387 public prosecutors throughout Thailand. The results showed that the public prosecutors’ roles in protecting the rights of child prostitution victims are the taking of evidence the highest at 85.5%, the investigating of children the secondary at 84.7 %. Future public prosecutors’ expressed roles also include protecting child victims from confronting the offenders, preventing who are not involved from attending the trial, giving advice steps and methods on the court’s, preparing child victims for the giving of testimony, and suggesting claims for compensation according to the Human Trafficking Prevention and Suppression Act. In addition performed well advised civil compensation claim in criminal cases according to the Criminal Procedure Code, Section 44/1<em>. </em>Whilst public prosecutors not performing about responsibility given by other agencies.</p> Anyapilak Rakkhittham Copyright (c) 2022 Thammasat Review 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 25 1 224 258