Thammasat Review Thammasat Review en-US <p style="text-align: justify;">The opinions and ideas expressed in all submissions published in Thammasat Review are solely that of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect that of the editors or the editorial board.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The copyright of all articles including all written content and illustrations belong to Thammasat Review. Any individuals or organisation wishing to&nbsp;publish, reproduce and distribute a particular manuscript must seek permission from the journal first.</p> (Associate Professor Dr. Peter Ractham) (Ms. Piyaporn Naruphai) Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0700 OJS 60 The Divine Ancestress in a Matrilineal Society: The Imprints of Khasi Matriliny on the Legend of Ka Pahsyntiew <p style="text-align: justify;">The Khasi people in the state of Meghalaya, Northeast India, observe matrilineal customs. Among the Khasis, descent is traced through the female line. Women hold an esteemed status of the persons who continue lineages and promote the welfare of their families and clans. This paper examines the legend of Ka Pahsyntiew – a Khasi legend that explains the semi-divine origin of a Khasi ruling clan – to discern cultural notions that underpin Khasi matriliny. The legend portrays Khasi outlooks on female generative power, wifehood/motherhood, and women’s vital roles in the formation of a secured and wholesome society. The imprints of Khasi matriliny on the legend become apparent via a comparison with the swan maiden story – a tale type found in numerous variants among diverse cultures. I posit that the legend of Ka Pahsyntiew and the swan maiden story are different elaborations of the same narrative pattern. This narrative pattern produces a legend that extols female generative power and virtues when told and received in Khasi matrilineal society. It, on the contrary, turns into multiple variants of the swan maiden tale that portray female subordination in a male-dominated world when passed on in patriarchal societies.</p> Kanya Wattanagun Copyright (c) 2021 Thammasat Review Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Rehabilitation of the Abandoned Land Under Luang Praditmanutham Expressway to a Neighborhood Park with a Participatory Process <p style="text-align: justify;">In order to increase the green area ratio of the city and meet World Health Organization (WHO) standards, Bangkok city planners attempt to transform abandoned land under expressways into public green spaces. The land under the Luang Praditmanutham expressway is surrounded by a number of urban communities, is currently in a state of deterioration, and is ineffectively used. This article is based on participatory research aiming to (1) investigate potential uses and constraints of the land, (2) scrutinize needs of the surrounding communities, and (3) propose a suitable park design for the Luang Praditmanutham expressway development plan. The research methodology was divided into 3 phrases: site survey, needs analysis, and public hearing. The research findings are derived by content analysis and triangulation. This research found that (1) the abandoned land under the Luang Praditmanutham expressway has the potential to be transformed to a neighborhood park, (2) the residents in the surrounding communities have a high demand for area development especially for greenery spaces and parking lots, (3) the alternative park design concept of “Nature in the City” won over the “Community and Sport” concept reflecting the needs of the community for natural area rather than community activities. Contributions from this study include (1) promoting a participatory process in the development plan, (2) fostering a collaborative learning process in the stage of decision making, and (3) enhancing urban space to make a city more sustainable.</p> Pattamon Selanon, Autchariya Rutchamart Copyright (c) 2021 Thammasat Review Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Cyberbullying Among University Students in Thailand <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to examine behaviors and factors of cyberbullying among undergraduate students in Thailand; and to find approaches which high education institutes in Thailand could employ to prevent and tackle the problem of cyberbullying. It adopted a mixed method approach. The qualitative part of the study was done through 18 semi-structured interviews; and the information deriving from this part was used to develop a questionnaire for the quantitative part of the study. The quantitative data was collected through questionnaire, of which the sample group was undergraduate students in Thailand. There were 1,928 respondents, comprising of 598 male students and 1,312 female students. According to the findings, individuals who were victims of cyberbullying have a high tendency to use cyberbullying as a method of retaliation. Likewise, the individuals who have friends who often cyberbully others are highly likely to be cyberbullies themselves. In addition, it was found that low self-esteem and a low level of empathy play a crucial role in cyberbullying. Additionally, online anonymity can be a crucial factor of cyberbullying. It is recommended that high education institutes should adopt a policy to educate students about cyberbullying and how to manage their anger. Furthermore, they should have appropriate measures to receive complaints concerning cyberbullying, and to soothe the feelings of the victims. There should be a counceling service in place for the students. Additionally, there should be mechanisms to encourage the improvement of self-esteem and increase empathy among university students.</p> Krisda Saengcharoensap, Veenunkarn Rujiprak Copyright (c) 2021 Thammasat Review Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0700 The Lens of Micro Counter - Public in Authoritarian Thailand 2006-2016 <p style="text-align: justify;">The public sphere in Thailand during 2006-2016 has limited and restricted freedom of expression under the authoritarian military regime. Many laws and promulgations were issued to enforce security. Military authorities extended their powers to excessively restrict rights and silence dissent in the name of security. Several laws actively proposed and enacted for decade such as Criminal Law Code section 112 or lese-majesty law, Internal Security Act (2008), Computer-related Crime Act (2007), Film and Video Act (2008),and Article 44 of the Interim Constitution 2007.&nbsp; This paper examines short film screenings during the Thai Short Film and Video Festival. These films criticized political issues based on rational-critical dialogues and inserted political messages aesthetically through rhetoric, metaphors, and satires. This paper found that these short films can be categorized into types, all of which utilize political symbols for representations i.e. idealized utopian or idealist ideas, inequality bias, relationship decline, symbolized conflicts, and resistance. Three types of amateur films were also selected to represent different political topics at different times. These films appeared in different genres such as short film, documentary film, and experimental film. The paper recommends public space in term of film screening or film festival is necessary for the young generation at the present because they can use it as counter public to debate and discuss a political issue with critical and rational thought instead of rally on the street. &nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Malinee Khumsupa Copyright (c) 2021 Thammasat Review Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Consumer Perception, WOM, Purchase, and Green Behaviour in Response to the PM2.5 Phenomenon <p style="text-align: justify;">A silent killer is an apt description of PM2.5 as this invisible tiny dust is very harmful for people’s health. PM2.5 negatively affects the lives of people in many parts of the world including Thailand. This problem became the talk of the town in Thailand when Bangkok shot up to be among the worst three cities with the highest air pollution (world AQI ranking) in 2019. This study seeks to understand how Thai consumers perceive and respond to this challenging situation — including whether and how they purchase products such as masks and air purifiers to help protect them from PM2.5. Additionally, this research investigates what could encourage people to act together to save the environment. It was found that the PM2.5 topic has engaged Thai people. They spread word-of-mouth regarding this issue. Around 6 out of 10 Thai people wear masks to protect themselves from PM2.5. Thai people seem to adopt their behavior in ways that require little to no cost and minimal effort. For example, they close windows, but they do not refrain from doing what they are used to such as cooking methods that produce a lot of smoke, or lighting incense during Chinese New Year. When they buy PM2.5-related products i.e. masks, they make their purchase decisions primarily on the product’s attributes and brand. People’s negative attitude towards PM2.5 and its perceived danger are not sufficient to lead to green behavior; while environmental concern such as the belief that people are harming the balance of the nature does. Scholars can use these findings as a foundation to further study and extend the knowledge frontier of green consumer behaviour. Managers and policy makers can collaborate in facilitating the right environment to act green, as well as ingraining and reinforcing green behaviour in Thai society.</p> Alisara Rungnontarat Charinsarn Copyright (c) 2021 Thammasat Review Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Employees’ Innovative Behavior in the Workplace: A Study of Intellectual Capital Effect on the Service-oriented Companies in Thailand <p style="text-align: justify;">Innovation or innovativeness is an essential factor for sustainable competitive advantages in organizations nowadays. This study aimed to explore the interaction between each element of intellectual capital (human capital, structural capital, and customer capital) with organizational employees’ innovative behavior of service-oriented companies. A purposive sampling method was applied in this study. In addition, a survey was used to collect data from 423 responses of 198 public companies in Thailand. The results from the multiple linear regression and the hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the three elements of intellectual capital had positive associations with employees’ innovative behavior in the workplace. Furthermore, the results presented that the structural capital of firms had the strongest effects on the innovative behavior among three elements of intellectual capital. The findings of this study offer not only the theoretical implications for scholars but also the practical implications for managers of service-oriented companies. The findings support that resource-based theory (RBT) not only worked as a main theoretical foundation in the scholarly literature but also noticeably featured in the field of strategic management by addressing a fundamental issue of intangible resources that can be created and accumulated for firms in the dynamic business environment. Having a higher extent of intellectual capital in firms tends to effectively encourage employees’ innovative behavior in the workplace.</p> Xuemei Sun Copyright (c) 2021 Thammasat Review Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Parental Purchase Behavior and the Development of a Cow's Milk Allergy Product for Lactose Intolerant Children <p style="text-align: justify;">This research investigated the appropriated appearances of snacks, required by parents of lactose intolerant children. Qualitative research was used to collect data from 12 people. The findings are divided into five themes, (1) food allergy in children, including; types of allergic food, symptom identification, manifestation, allergic factors and symptom development of lactose intolerant children, (2) how to treat lactose intolerant children, including; caregivers of lactose intolerant children, how to take care of lactose intolerant children, how to treat a child with allergic symptoms and how to avoid food with cow’s milk, (3) eating habits and Alternative food and snack for children with cow’s milk allergy, including<strong>; </strong>collective behavior for food and snack eating, food intake,&nbsp; snack intake, factors affecting snack intake of lactose intolerant children, normal snack desire, frequency of snack intake, why lactose intolerant children are allowed to eat snacks, types of food and snacks permitted by parents, (4) purchasing decisions, including; parent’s cognition,&nbsp; price,&nbsp; store, salesperson, advertisement, membership and promotion, and (5) parental purchase decision to buy snacks for lactose intolerant children. This theme includes an ideal snack for lactose intolerant children below 10-year-old, purchase decision influencer, decision makers, purchase decision factors and reason to purchase alternative snack. Purchase decision factors include purchase period, purchase quantity, packaging size, purchase frequency, price range and store.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Parameth Voraseyanont, Duangkamon Lilitkarnpot, Supina Supina Copyright (c) 2021 Thammasat Review Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Digital Technology Adoption in Agriculture: Success Factors, Obstacles and Impact on Corporate Social Responsibility Performance in Thailand’s Smart Farming Projects <p style="text-align: justify;">Technological growth is fueling the global economy in every sector, including agriculture. This study’s objectives are (1) to examine how the Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI) and big data technology can improve agricultural productivity for small-scale farmers in Thailand, (2) to investigate the success factors and impediments to this technology adoption in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) projects, and (3) to explore the link between technology adoption in two CSR projects in Thailand with the CSR performance. This study adopts an inductive qualitative approach with in-depth face-to-face interviews with two leading Thai IT companies that successfully helped local small-scale farmers to implement smart farming solutions. Both firms employed smart technology, such as IoT, using sensors, AI-enabled mobile device applications, and big data to help farmers plan, operate, and monitor their crops and paddy fields. The study’s findings add new knowledge to both academic theory and business practice by showing how corporations not only can help small producers to successfully adopt smart technology to scale their social impact but also promote implementing more proactive CSR strategies in their industry.</p> Sorawadee Srivetbodee, Barbara Igel Copyright (c) 2021 Thammasat Review Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Distribution of Private Health Expenditure Analysis on Provincial in Thailand <p style="text-align: justify;">This research analysed the distribution of private health expenditure at the provincial level in Thailand. Health expenditure in each household was categorised into three aspects: medicine and medical supplies, medical expenses from visiting the Out Patient Department (OPD) and In Patient Department (IPD) at hospitals. Panel Data from 77 provinces from 2012 – 2017 was used in this research. The data was analysed using Multiple Regression Analysis and a Fixed Effect Model to round up the parameter. The Hausman Test was used to test the rationality of the model. Inequity in the distribution of household health expenditure per each province was studied using the Lorenz Curve and the Gini Index while equity in the healthcare funding system was investigated using the Kakwani Index.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The study found that household medical expenses from visiting the OPD at a hospital was the highest monthly expenditure. For inequity in private health expenditure, the Gini Index showed that the overall health expenditure was 0.36, while the health expenditure in each aspect found that the IPD was highest in inequity in private health expenditure, with the Gini Index equalling 0.49. It was also found that the Gini Index has increased every year. This rise shows that the inequity in private health expenditure is increasing continuously.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The Kakwani Index of expenditure equity yielded a negative value. When considering the factors that contribute to the rise of private health expenditure, it was found that the expenditure often increased in parallel to demand. The results of this research also showed that the health service system affected all 3 aspects of the private health expenditure. Universal Health Coverage was the only system that accounted for the increase of private health expenditure in all aspects. On the other hand, the Social Security Scheme reduced the expenditure.&nbsp;</p> Darunwan Somjai Copyright (c) 2021 Thammasat Review Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Responsiveness to Incentives in Organ Donation Decisions: A Laboratory Experiment <p style="text-align: justify;">In Thailand, the number of patients who are waiting for an organ transplant has been growing. This study investigates the optimal organ allocation rule considering the risk of organ compatibility between givers and receivers. We run the experiment focusing on three allocation rules: the first come first served, the rebate, and the priority rule. In the first come first served, the longest waiting subject obtains an organ. The rebate rule is that donors receive payment for donating and they are given a priority when they need an organ transplant in the priority rule. We find that the subjects have the strongest response to the priority rule and the compatibility factor played a crucial role when subjects decide to donate.</p> Pathomwat Chantarasap, Tanapong Potipiti Copyright (c) 2021 Thammasat Review Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0700