Main Article Content
The present article addresses the origins and potential effects of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region as adopted on June 30, 2020 by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on the contemporary civil society of Hong Kong. Based on the critical analysis of the academic literature, norms of constitutional jurisprudence pertaining to the legal status of Hong Kong within China, and relevant news items, this study shows why the adoption of that national security law should be considered a rupture in the evolution of the political regime of the former colony that was originally inspired by the liberal rule of law model based on the maxim of "one country, two systems". In the 2010s, the progress of the integration of the Hong Kong liberal rule of law system to the socialist rule of law in mainland China has led to increased civil society mobilizations in the Hong Kong region, which was accompanied by tendencies toward a certain radicalization of part of the local civil society. In this context, the national security law implements a series of reforms to the institutions of the autonomous region of Hong Kong, while codifying new criminal law provision that entail a limitation of the possibility for Hong Kong-based local civil society organizations to defy the socialist system of the People’s Republic of China.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Borger, J., Wintour, P., & agencies. (2020, July 6). Hong Kong: First person charged under new security law. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jul/06/hong-kong-first-person-charged-under-new-security-law
Chan, C. (2019). Demise of ‘one country, two systems’? Reflections on the Hong Kong rendition saga. Hong Kong Law Journal, 49(2), 447-458.
Chan, J. (2018). A storm of unprecedented ferocity: The shrinking space of the right to political participation, peaceful demonstration, and judicial independence in Hong Kong. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 16(2), 373-388.
Chan, J. M. M., Fu, H. L., & Ghai, Y. (2000). Hong Kong’s constitutional debate: Conflict over interpretation. Hong Kong University Press.
Chen, A. H. Y. The theory, constitution and practice of autonomy: The case of Hong Kong. In J. C. Oliveira & P. Cardinal (Eds.), One country, two systems, three legal orders: Perspectives of evolution (pp. 751-767). Springer.
Cheng, E. W., & Yuen, S. (2019). Memory in movement: Collective identity and memory contestation in Hong Kong’s Tiananmen vigils. Mobilization: An International Quarterly, 24(4), 419-437.
Cheng, S. (2021, March 15). Activists in exile launch ‘2021 Hong Kong Charter’ solidarity movement to unite Hongkongers overseas. Hong Kong Free Press. https://hongkongfp.com/2021/03/15/activists-in-exile-launch-2021-hong-kong-charter-solidarity-movement-to-unite-hongkongers-overseas/
China Daily. (2020a, July 3). China appoints adviser to Committee for Safeguarding National Security of HKSAR. China Daily. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202007/03/WS5efeb21fa3108348172570e0.html
China Daily. (2020b, July 1). Liaison Office director: Security law a ‘guardian’ for HK residents. China Daily. https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202007/01/WS5efc172da31083481725670d.html
Davidson, H. (2020, July 15). New York Times moves staff out of Hong Kong amid press freedom fears. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jul/15/new-york-times-moves-staff-out-of-hong-kong-amid-press-freedom-fears
Davidson, H., & Kuo, L. (2020, August 10). Hong Kong media tycoon Jimmy Lai arrested under new security law. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/aug/10/hong-kong-media-tycoon-jimmy-lai-arrested-over-alleged-foreign-collusion
Deng, X. (1994). Selected works of Deng Xiaoping (Vol. 3). Foreign Languages Press.
Fong, C. H. B. (2017). One country, two nationalisms: Center-periphery relations between Mainland China and Hong Kong, 1997-2016. Modern China, 43(5), 523-556.
Golser, F. (2016). The concept of a special criminal law as a weapon against “enemies” of the society. Studia Iuridica, 67, 65-77.
Henders, S. J. (2010). Territoriality, asymmetry, and autonomy: Catalonia, Corsica, Hong Kong, and Tibet. Palgrave Macmillan.
Hung, H., & Ip, I. (2012). Hong Kong’s democratic movement and the making of China’s offshore civil society. Asian Survey, 52(3), 504-527.
Ismangil, M., & Lee, M. (2020). Protests in Hong Kong during the Covid-19 pandemic. Crime Media Culture, 17(1), 17-20.
Lam, J. T. M. (2010). Party institutionalization in Hong Kong. Asian Perspective, 34(2), 53-82.
Lee, E. W. Y. (2020). United front, clientelism, and indirect rule: Theorizing the role of the “Liaison Office” in Hong Kong. Journal of Contemporary China, 29(125), 763-775.
Lehtinen, M., & Brunila, T. (2021). A political ontology of the pandemic: Sovereign power and the management of affects through the political ontology of war. Frontiers in Political Science, July 28, 2021. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpos.2021.674076
Li, L. (2019). The Chinese road of the rule of law. Springer.
Lo, S. S.-H. (2008). The dynamics of Beijing-Hong Kong relations: A model for Taiwan? Hong Kong University Press.
Lo, S. S.-H. (2020). Hong Kong in 2019: Turning point amid tensions. Asian Survey, 60(1), 34-40.
Lo, S. S.-H. (2021). Hong Kong in 2020: National security law and truncated autonomy. Asian Survey, 61(1), 34-42.
Lo, S. S.-H., Hung, S. C.-F., & Loo, J. H.-C. (2021). The dynamics of peaceful and violent protests in Hong Kong: The anti-extradition movement. Palgrave Macmillan.
Low, Z. (2021, January 6). Hong Kong national security law: A 35-plus ambition, ‘colour revolution’ and the ‘resistance’ – what led to biggest mass arrests under legislation? South China Morning Post. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3116586/hong-kong-national-security-law-35-plus-ambition-colour
National Laws to be Applied in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. (2021). Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau. https://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclaw/national-laws.html
Ng, T., Ng, J., Mai, J., & Cheung, T. (2020, July 1). National security law will uphold ‘one country, two systems’ in Hong Kong, top Beijing official says. South China Morning Post. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3091307/national-security-law-will-plug-hong-kong-loopholes
Peerenboom, R. (2002). China’s long march toward rule of law. Cambridge University Press.
Purbrick, M. (2019). A report of the 2019 Hong Kong protests. Asian Affairs, 50(4), 465-487.
Qin, J., & Zhou, Q. (2019). The dissolution of the Hong Kong National Party: Constitutionality under the “militant democracy” theory. The Chinese Journal of Comparative Law, 7(3), 413-434.
Scott, I. (2017). “One country, two systems”: The end of a legitimating ideology? Asia Pacific Journal of Public Administration, 39(2), 83-99.
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. (2020, July 2). Government statement. Retrieved July 24, 2022, from https://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/202007/02/P2020070200869.htm?fontSize=1
The Standard. (2020a, June 30). Joshua Wong, Nathan Law, Agnes Chow quit Demosisto. The Standard. https://www.thestandard.com.hk/breaking-news/section/4/150051/Joshua-Wong,-Nathan-Law-and-Agnes-Chow-quit-Demosisto
The Standard. (2020b, August 10). New unit to vet sensitive visas. The Standard. https://www.thestandard.com.hk/section-news/section/4/221704/New-unit-to-vet-sensitive-visas
Vogel, E. F. (2011). Deng Xiaoping and the transformation of China. Harvard University Press.
Wong, N. (2020, December 12). National security law: Baggio Leung says threats to personal safety in Hong Kong forced him into political asylum in US. South China Morning Post. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3113702/national-security-law-baggio-leung-says-threats-personal
Wong, N. (2021, February 28). National security law: 47 Hong Kong opposition figures charged with conspiring to subvert state power, after arrests over roles in bloc’s primary. South China Morning Post. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3123475/national-security-law-47-hong-kong-opposition-figures
Wu, T. (2022, March 2). Former Hong Kong lawmaker marks first anniversary in Australian exile. SBS. https://www.sbs.com.au/chinese/english/former-hong-kong-lawmaker-marks-first-anniversary-in-australian-exile
Zhu, H., & Chen, A. H. Y. (2019). The oath-taking cases and the NPCSC interpretation of 2016: Interface of common law and Chinese law. Hong Kong Law Journal, 49(1), 381-415.